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LINKS TO PAINE'S MAJOR WORKS
Age of Reason
A Brief Chronology of the Life of Thomas Paine
(January 29, 1737 - June 8, 1809)
- 1737 - Thomas Pain(e) is born on the 29th of January in
Thetford, Norfolk, England to Joseph and Frances Cocke Pain(e).
- 1750 - At age 13, young Paine apprenticed to father to learn
trade of stay-making.
- 1753 - Thomas tries to run away to sea, on the ship Terrible
commanded by Captain Death, but was prevented by his
father. A year or two later, Thomas succeeds in joining the crew
of a ship for a short enlistment.
- 1757 - Thomas begins practice of his trade as a stay-maker in a
London shop. Living in London he attends lectures about Newtonian
astronomy, where he becomes acquainted with scientists and other
- 1759 - Thomas opens a shop as a master stay-maker in Sandwich,
Kent. He marries Mary Lambert, who dies a year later.
- 1762 - Enters customs service as unattached officer (gauger of
brewers' casks), at Alford, Lancashire.
- 1764 - Receives appointment as officer of customs.
- 1765 - Dismissed from his position (in August) after being
accused of stamping goods without inspecting them.
- 1766 - In London, Thomas teaches English at an academy operated
by Mr. Noble, and may have also engaged in preaching.
- 1768 - Thomas successfully petititons for reappointment to the
excise service; he take a position in the district of Lewes,
- 1771 - Marries Elizabeth Ollive (in March), daughter of a
deceased tradesman who owned the property where Thomas had
- 1772 - Writes
of the Officers of Excise, his earliest known
prose composition and first important pamphlet.
- 1773 - Solicits Oliver Goldsmith's aid in getting the cause of
excisemen before Parliament, which ignores the petition.
- 1774 - He is discharged from the excise service. He also
secures legal separation from wife and departs for North America
(in November), bearing a letter of introduction from Benjamin
- 1775 - Becomes editor of Robert Aitken's Pennsylvania
Magazine. His anti-slavery essay,
Slavery in America, is published in the Pennsylvania
Journal. Although unsigned, the essay is attributed to Paine,
who receives praise for it from Dr. Benjamin Rush, a leading
abolitionist. Paine also anticipates the Declaration of
Independence in his essay,
Serious Thought, in which he also rebukes Britain
and America for the slave trade and slave holding (in Pennsylvania
Journal, October 18, 1775, signed "Humanus.")
- 1776 - Publishes Common
Sense (January 9-10). Enlists in the Continental
Armyand serves as aide de camp to General Nathaneal Greene. He
sees action at Fort Lee, New Jersey.
- He writes The Forester's Letters,
printed in the Pennsylvania Journal:
May; the first three letter are response to the
writings signed Cato, the Rev. Dr. William Smith, a Scotch
clergyman of the English Church, Provost of the College of
Philadelphia; the fourth letter is a call for a return to first
- Produces American
Crisis I, (the first of the Crisis Papers),
19 December, 1776. Here are his famous opening lines:
These are the times that
try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot
will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country;
but he that stands it now, deserves the thanks of man and woman.
are read to troops and is a morale-builder that helps the
Americans to win the battle of Trenton NJ on Christmas day,
December 25, 1776.
- 1777 - Writes
III. Congress appoints Paine its Secretary to
Committee on Foreign Affairs and appoints him to help
commissioners for an Indian treaty. He produces
IV (which opens with:
Those who expect to reap
the blessings of freedom, must, like men, undergo the fatigues
of supporting it. And near the close, it states, We fight not to
enslave, but to set a country free, and to make room upon the
earth for honest men to live in.)
- 1778 - Produces
V (March), Supernumerary
VI, (October) and
- 1779 - Paine resigns as Foreign Affairs Secretary as result of
Silas Deane affair (in which Paine is eventually exonerated). He
is appointed Clerk of the Pennsylvania Assembly.
- 1780 - Writes
VIII (March) and
IX (June). University of Pennsylvania confers
honorary degree. Publishes
Extraordinary and theessay
Good, which refutes Virginia's claims to western
lands. Contributes three hundred dollars toward establishment of
the Bank of Pennsylvania.
- 1781 - Accompanies Colonel John Laurens, on Laurens' request,
and at Paine's own expense, to France on diplomatic mission.
- 1782 - Publishes Crisis
X, (March) and
the Affairs of North America, a Letter to Abbe Raynal
- 1783 - Publishes
XIII (April) and Supernumerary
- 1784 - State of New York presents Paine with a farm at New
Rochelle NY, for his eminent services in the cause of
- 1785 - Paine works on his design of a single-arch iron bridge;
also invents a smokeless candle.
- 1786 - Writes
on Government, the Affairs of the Bank, and Paper Money,
which supports the Bank of North America.
- 1787 - Takes his bridge proposal and design to France to the
Academy of Sciences. Writes Prospects
on the Rubicon.
- 1788 - Returns to England to promote his bridge, and to visit
his parents. Visits former wife; continues to support her. Meets
Charles Fox, Lord Landsdowne, Mary Wollstonecraft and Edmund
- 1789 - A letter written to Thomas Jefferson
the Theory of Government
- 1790 - Receives key to Bastille, in France, from the Marquis de
Lafayette, for presentation to George Washington.
- 1791 - Publishes
of Man, part 1, Paine's democratic-republican
reply to Edmund Burke's denunciation of the French Revolution.
Also writes A Republican Manifesto,
in which Paine denounces monarchy -- as he had already done in
Common Sense and in Rights
of Man. 1792 - Writes part 2 of Rights
of Man and Letter Addressed
to the Addressers. Returns to France, takes seat in
National Convention to which he was elected as a member from
Calais. Paine is one of the four major writers of a Constitution
for the Republic of France.
- 1793 - As a member of the National Convention (January 1793),
Paine urges banishment, not death, of Louis XVI and family. Paine
is not heeded, even though he states the view that the Republic
should abolish monarchy but spare the life of the man. Paine's
plea is clearly the general idea to eliminate capital punishment.
- 1793 - Writes a
Letter to Danton,
indicating his desire to return to the United States as soon as a
new constitution is established for France.
- 1793 - Writes
Age of Reason, part 1. Paine is arrested and
imprisoned in Luxembourg Prison (November), a political prison, in
Paris. His transgressions presumably are his moderation regarding
Louis XVI and his determination for a written French constitution.
He continues his writing while in prison.
- 1793 - After 11 months in prison and without the intercession
of the American President, George Washington, or the Ambassador to
France, Gouvernour Morris, Paine is at last released (in November)
from Luxembourg Prison through the good offices of the new
Ambassador to France, James Monroe.
- 1794 - et seq. Paine returns to the National Convention, in
spite of previous difficulties there. Paine continues to be known
as "the republican" among Irish, English other European
patriots and republicans living in Paris. Paine also writes
numerous letters and essays espousing republican values.
- 1795 - Publishes
on First Principles of Government, and The
Age of Reason, part 2.
- 1795 - Publishes
Justice, his treatise on social welfare
proposals, continuing his ideas in Rights
of Man, part 2.
- 1796 - Paine wrote the poem-letter
or, If You Please, Confession, inscribed to the
wife of Paine's friend, Joel Barlow, then living in Paris, as was
- 1796 - Paine published an
to George Washington, describing his services to
the United States and his disillusionment with George Washington's
- 1800 - Writes Maritime Compact,
consisting of 10 articles proposing an Association of Nations that
shall remain neutral during armed conflict between any other
- 1802 - Returns to America, resides off and on at his farm in
New Rochelle NY and in New York City.
- 1804 - Writes
the French Inhabitants of Louisiana, a rebuke for
asking for continuation of the slave trade in the Louisiana
- 1805 - Moves to New York City permanently.
- 1809 - Dies in New York City, June 8, 1809. His remains were
buried on his farm in New Rochelle. The burial site was
- 1819 - Paine's remains were removed by the English 18th - 19th
century democrat, William Cobbett, with others, in a plan to give
Paine a fitting burial in England and to use the occasion of the
re-burial to garner support for a democratic-and-workers movement
among the British. The scheme to re-bury Paine's remains did not
materialize and his remains became lost to history.
- 1839 - The first Thomas Paine memorial in this country was
erected near the site of Paine's neglected burial site in New
Rochelle NY, through the efforts of New York liberal publisher
Gilbert Vale, who also wrote the first fair biography of Paine.
With renowned sculptor James Frazee, Vale raised donated funds for
an impressive marble pylon, engraved with Paine's words, near the
burial site. Later, in 1889, a bronze bust of Paine fashioned by
Wilson MacDonald, and funded by the newly formed Thomas Paine
Historical Association, was placed at the top of the marble pylon.
This monument continues to have attraction for Paine admirers, and
is still a place where they gather on the anniversary of the birth
of the great patriot-author-political philosopher.